Saturday, June 21, 2008

Friday, June 20, 2008

Tanam Tomato

3.8.2008
Ahad
Baru balik dari kerja diluar. anak tomato terus segar, kini berdaun enam.

29.7.2008
Selasa
Benih tomato sudah nak berdaun empat. Petang tadi kami pindahkan 18 anak benih dari pasu ke polybag. Masih ada satu pasu lagi tidak kami pindahkan. Itu mungkin dibiarkan sebagai back-up jika ada yang mati dalam polybag, atau mati bila tanam ke tanah nanti.

25.7.2008
Jumaat
Benih tomato sudah mula bercambah. dengan segarnya. Ketiga-tiga pasu nampaknya menjadi. Tidak sangka benih cherry tomato tumbuh dengan pesat sekali. Dari bacaan disarankan benih tomato segera diubah ketanah bila sudah ada beberapa helai daun. Disarankan juga supaya sokong dalam bentuk kayu atau buluh sudah dipacak sebelum anak tomato ditanam. Ini untuk mengelakkan dari akar jadi rosak.

Sekarang masih terfikir-fikir dimana lokasi untuk tomato ini kelak. Saya cuma menjangka lokasinya perlu tidak terlalu terik.

Rancangan setakat ini adalah untuk mengubah anak tomato dalam pasu secara berasingan, iaitu satu anak dalam satu pasu. Saya jangka akan tanam 6 pokok tomato.



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20 julai 2008:

Dua minggu lepas, kami beli se peket cherry tomatoes dari Carrefour Putrajaya. 4 biji dibuka dan diasingkan biji benihnya. Hari ini benih-benih tersebut akan disemai dalam pasu.


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Rujukan yang baik:

Growing tomatoes, how to grow tomatoes


cherry tomatoes: hiasan

cherry tomatoes: hiasan


Top 10 Terrific Tomato Tips

1. Don’t Crowd Seedlings.

If you are starting tomatoes from seed, be sure to give the seedlings room to branch out. Close conditions inhibit their growth, so transplant them as soon as they get their first true leaves and move them into 4" pots about 2 weeks after that.

2. Provide lots of light.

Tomato seedlings will need either strong, direct sunlight or 14-18 hours under grow lights. Place the young plants only a couple of inches from florescent grow lights. Plant your tomatoes outside in the sunniest part of your vegetable plot.
3. Put a fan on your seedlings.

It seems tomato plants need to move and sway in the breeze, to develop strong stems. Provide a breeze by turning a fan on them for 5-10 minutes twice a day.

4. Preheat the soil in your garden.

Tomatoes love heat. Cover the planting area with black or red plastic a couple of weeks before you intend to plant. Those extra degrees of warmth will translate into earlier tomatoes.
5. Bury them.

Bury tomato plants deeper than they come in the pot, all the way up to a few top leaves. Tomatoes are able to develop roots all along their stems. You can either dig a deeper hole or simply dig a shallow tunnel and lay the plant sideways. It will straighten up and grow toward the sun. Be careful not to drive your pole or cage into the stem.
6. Mulch Later.

Mulch after the ground has had a chance to warm up. Mulching does conserve water and prevents the soil and soil born diseases from splashing up on the plants, but if you put it down too early it will also shade and therefore cool the soil. Try using plastic mulch for heat lovers like tomatoes and peppers. (See Tip #4)
7. Remove Bottom Leaves.

Once the tomato plants are about 3' tall, remove the leaves from the bottom 1' of stem. These are usually the first leaves to develop fungus problems. They get the least amount of sun and soil born pathogens can be unintentionally splashed up onto them. Spraying weekly with compost tea also seems to be effective at warding off fungus diseases.
8. Pinch & Prune.

Pinch and remove suckers that develop in the crotch joint of two branches. They won’t bear fruit and will take energy away from the rest of the plant. But go easy on pruning the rest of the plant. You can thin leaves to allow the sun to reach the ripening fruit, but it’s the leaves that are photosynthesizing and creating the sugars that give flavor to your tomatoes.
9. Water Regularly.

Water deeply and regularly while the plants are developing. Irregular watering, (missing a week and trying to make up for it), leads to blossom end rot and cracking. Once the fruit begins to ripen, lessening the water will coax the plant into concentrating its sugars. Don’t withhold water so much that the plants wilt and become stressed or they will drop their blossoms and possibly their fruit.
10. Getting Them to Set Fruit.

Determinate type tomatoes tend to set and ripen their fruit all at one time, making a large quantity available when you’re ready to make sauce. You can get indeterminate type tomatoes to set fruit earlier by pinching off the tips of the main stems in early summer.
References:

Tanam Ubi Kayu (Tapioca)

25.7.2008: Tunas ubi kayu sudah nampak jelas.
20hb julai 2008: Hari ke 4, tunas baru timbul. 17hb Julai 2008: 10 keratan ubi kayu di tanam secara mudah dalam tanah. Benih diperolehi dari Kampung Seberang Parit.
:: 4 perdu : jenis ubi kayu isi kuning.
:: 10 perdu: jenis daun halus, difahamkan sedap untuk ulam.
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Tapioca

Tapioca is essentially a flavorless starchy ingredient, or fecula, produced from treated and dried cassava (manioc) root and used in cooking. It is similar to sago and is commonly used to make a milky pudding similar to rice pudding. Purchased tapioca comprises many small white spheres each about 2 mm in diameter (although larger grain sizes are available). These are not seeds, but rather reconstituted processed root. The processing concept is akin to the way that wheat is turned into pasta. These tapioca pearls are made mostly of tapioca starch, which comes from the tapioca, or bitter-cassava plant, Manihot esculenta. In other parts of the world, the bitter-cassava plant may be called "mandioca", "aipim", "macaxeira", "manioca", "boba", or "yuca" and "kappa" in the state of Kerala in India.

Cassava is native to South America. However, it was later planted in parts of the Middle East and India [1] The balls are prepared by boiling for 25 minutes, until they are cooked thoroughly but have not lost pliancy, then cooled for 25 minutes. The pearls have little taste, and are usually combined with other ingredients, savory or sweet.

Tapioca is a word derived from the Tupi language of Brazil (from tipi'óka). [1] This refers to the process through which cassava (Manihot esculenta) is made edible. It should be noted, however, that as the word moved out of South America it came to refer to similar preparations made with other esculents. 'Tapioca' in Britain often refers to a rice pudding thickened with arrowroot, while in Asia the sap of the sago palm is often part of its preparation.

Production and uses

The cassava plant can have either red or green branches. The toxin found in the root of the red-branched variant is less harmful to humans than the green-branched variety.[citation needed] Therefore, while the root of the red/purple-branched variant can be consumed directly, the root of the green-branched variant requires treatment to remove the toxin. Konzo (also called mantakassa) is a paralytic disease associated with several weeks of almost exclusive consumption of insufficiently processed bitter cassava.

It is processed into either fine dried flakes or, more commonly, small hard white spheres or "pearls" that are soaked before use. These spheres are a common ingredient in Southeast Asian desserts, in puddings such as tapioca pudding, and in Taiwanese drinks such as Bubble Tea, or Boba Milk Tea where they provide a chewy contrast to the sweetness of the drink. Cassava flour (tapioca flour or tapioca starch) is commonly used as a food thickener, and is also used as a binder in pharmaceutical tablets and natural paints.

In Southeast Asia, a common way of preparation is either to cut it in slices, wedges or strips, fried, and served as a snack, similar to potato chips, wedges and french fries. Another method is to boil large blocks until soft, and served with grated coconut as a dessert, either slightly salted or sweetened, usually with palm sugar syrup. Tapai is made by fermenting large blocks with a yeast-like bacteria culture to produce a sweet and slightly alcoholic dessert. A variation of the chips popular amongst the Malays is kerepek pedas, where the crisps are coated with a hot, sweet and tangy chili and onion paste, or sambal, usually with fried anchovies and peanuts added.

A typical recipe for tapioca jelly can be made by washing 2 tablespoonfuls of tapioca, pouring a pint of water over it, and soaking for three hours. It is then placed over low heat and simmered until quite clear. If too thick, a little boiling water can be added. It can be sweetened with white sugar, flavored with coconut milk or a little wine, and eaten alone or with cream.

In various Asian countries (India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Malaysia) tapioca pearls are known as sabudana (Sagu, also called 'Seeme Akki' in Kannada). In Kannada, the actual cassava root is called 'kolli'. It is commonly used as a food after fasting (popularly called 'khichdi') among some Hindus in central part of India (Maharashtra region). Also the pearls (sabudana) are used to make snacks.

In southern parts of India, especially the state of Kerala, a lot of tapioca is consumed , either boiled or cooked with spices. Tapioca and fish curry could be considered official food of Kerala. In southern states like Kerala, tapioca is thinly sliced in and made into wafers like salted potato wafers. In the south Indian state of Kerala, cassava, often referred to as tapioca in English, and kappa (കപ്പ) or kolly or maracheeni in Malayalam, is a staple food. Tapioca is used to make a granules like product called chowwary in Malayalam. This is used to make a light porridge by adding milk or buttermilk, recommended for patients recovering from illness.

In Indian cuisine, the granular preparation of cassava starch is known as tapiaco. It can also be used to thicken puddings. In Tamil, the roots of tapiaco is called Maravallikezangu (மரவள்ளிக் கிழங்கு), and is used to prepare chips. Tapiaco is also used to prepare maida flour. Tapiaco chips are also prepared in parts of South India. In Tamil Nadu, a large number of tapiaco industries are found in Attur Taluk, Salem District. Salem City has a marketing center for the sago (known as "javvarisi").

During World War II's Japanese occupation of Southeast Asia, many refugees survived on tapioca, as the plant is easily propagated by stem-cutting, grows well even in low-nutrient soils, and can be harvested every two months. The plant thus provided much needed carbohydrate and protein then. [2]

In Brazilian cuisine, tapioca is used for different types of meals. The tapioca is stirred, drained through a sieve, fried into a tortilla shape, and often sprinkled with coconut. Then it may be buttered and eaten as a toast (its most common use as a breakfast dish), or it may be filled or topped with either "doces" (sweet) or "salgados" (salty) ingredients, which define the kind of meal the tapioca is used for: breakfast, afternoon tea or dessert. Choices range from butter, cheese, chocolate, bananas with condensed milk, chocolate with bananas, to various forms of meats and served warm. A restaurant which specializes in tapioca-based dishes (mostly fillings) is called in Brazil a "tapiocaria".

While frequently associated with dessert in the Unites States, tapioca is now being used by some cooks in other courses as well.[citation needed] Thomas Keller, high-profile chef at the California restaurant French Laundry, serves oysters on tapioca. The pairing, called "Oysters and Pearls," is considered Keller's "signature dish."

Tapioca starch

Tapioca starch, sometimes called tapioca flour or polvilho, is a refined white flour made from the cassava root. It is broadly used as a thickener for sauces, soups and stews. It can also be used in baking. Tapioca starch is very fine, and is often used as a substitute for arrowroot starch and cornstarch. Tapioca starch is gluten-free, and is often added to gluten-free baking as a thickener and binder to make up for the lack of gluten in those recipes.

In the USA, Tapioca starch is sometimes used while making yogurt. It is also used to thicken various Asian dishes. Made from pure tapioca, the general purpose is similar to flour. It is also an important ingredient in various Thai desserts.

Tapioca starch is also used in producing alcohol, and an increasing amount of alcohol manufacturers and ethanol producers in Asia are using it to produce sorbitol and ethanol.

Tanam Limau Purut

26.7.2008
Sabtu.
Kami beli anak pokok limau purut dari nursery, sekali bukan dari Tony tapi dari nursery jalan lurus dari roundabout Toll Bangi, sebelum supermarket WARTA.

Sehari dua ini, pokok di biasakan dengan cahaya terik dan angin supaya lebih bersedia untuk berpindah ke tanah!

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LIMAU PURUT

Limau purut, the Malay name for Kaffir Lime, or its scientific name Citrus hystrix of the Rutaceae family, is well known for its medicinal properties, not only by the Malays in the old days but also by modern scientific researchers.

In Pahang, besides its usage in adding flavor to traditional Malay dishes and cuisines, like the rendang, and tomyam, it is sometimes used as herbal medicine to treat normal skin disorders.

It is not actually used for treatment of chronic skin disorders like psoriasis or eczema, but only for ordinary skin irritations that normally require basic general medications.


Why the Limau Purut is Used in Herbal Medicines

Limau purut contains tannin, triterpenouid and saponin.

It is used in herbal medicines and traditional treatments, as the fruit and especially its leaves, have those special properties to encourage the growth of skin.

The Malays of Pahang, in the old days, used limau purut juice to treat hair and promote healthy growth of hair follicles.

Nowadays to achieve this better, hair is first washed with ordinary shampoo, and then the hair and scalp are washed with the juice extracted from the fruit.

The juice is then left for a few minutes on the head to let it soak into the hair follicles, and then the head and hair is rinsed finally with plain water.

inside of limau purut is similar to lime <>
To alleviate colds, lack of energy and tiredness, the juice extracted from the fruit is mixed with plain water and drank three times a day.

The juice actually tastes very sour and bitter, perhaps a lot more bitter than lemon juice. It is traditionally believed that it is good for blood circulation.

The leaves are also utilised as one of the ingredients in traditional Malay sauna bath or "mandi wap" because of its fragrance, while the essence of the fruit is now popularly used in modern aromatherapy.


Why is Limau Purut used in Silat?

Limau purut also plays an important part in the rituals of some forms of the Malay art of self-defence, silat.

It is normally used in the ritual of bathing after graduation where the limau purut fruit is cut and blended with plain water and then students are bathed as part of spiritual bathing by their Malay silat master.

The reason it is used in silat is that it is said to have some special qualities, like invigorating the senses during self-defence training.

Perhaps its fragrant and sharp odor contain elements that provide some peculiar and distinctive aromatherapic properties to the brain.

Besides the silat rituals, limau purut is also used in the cleaning of keris, the deadly Malay weapon, and other iron or metal-based utensils. Besides being a good cleanser of rusts, the juice is also a great anti-rust agent.

Cleaning the keris is done by swiping the keris with the half-cut fruit and ensuring its juices are spread on both sides of the keris. The keris is then finally cleaned and rinsed with plain water. Periodic cleaning of the keris will ensure its longevity by keeping rusts at bay.


limau purut or kafir lime plant<>

The Limau Purut Tree

The leaves of this fruit are oblong or egg-shaped, and seemed to be a combination and linking of two leaves, like wings.

The top side of the leaf is dark green and shiny, while the bottom side of the leaf is lighter or yellowish green in color.

The leaf will give a fresh lime (or lemon-like) fragrance when squashed with the fingers. And in traditional Malay dishes, the leaves are added to give the dish the unique taste of lime.

 the kafir lime fruit with the peculiar leaves of the plant<>
The flower of this fruit is star-shaped, and reddish white or yellowish in color.

The fruit is smaller than an ordinary apple or orange, and round and pear-like in shape with uneven skin, having sort of big pimples or "mini-volcanoes" on the skin!

Ugly skin, not handsome or pretty at all, but, aww, it doesn't matter. It's what inside that counts, right?

Tanam Kacang Bendi

28.7.2008: Empat(4) perdu bendi nampaknya sudah mula menampakkan rupa buahnya.

25.7.2008:
kesemua pokok bendi tumbuh dengan segar, hanya satu saja kelihatan sedikit tergencat.
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20.7. 2008 Bendi awal-awalnya disemai dalam pasu kecil, dan diubah ketanah bila berdaun empat. Sudah nampak segar. Tanah ditutup dengan rumput kering untuk mengelak dari panas terik dan terhakis bila hujan lebat.

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25.6.2008: Gambar lokasi asal sebelum batas dibina.


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Bendi, Okra (Hibiscus esculentus)

Bendi yang dipercayai berasal dari Afrika Utara ialah sejenis tanaman sayuran buah yang berlendir. Ia mudah ditanam dan kurang diserang penyakit dan perosak. Buah dan bahagian-bahagian lain tanaman ini boleh dipelbagai gunakan seperti buahnya boleh dimasak dengan pelbagai cara; kari, sebagai ulam, salad dan digoreng. Buahnya juga diproses iaitu ditin, dibekukan dan dijeruk dengan garam. Lendirnya pula digunakan sebagai bahan pemekat untuk sos tomato. Di India, batang-batang bendi yang tua dijadikan kertas dan biji-bijinya yang tua dijadikan minuman harian menggantikan kopi.

Menanam
Tanam biji benih sedalam 2.5sm di batas. Pastikan dibubuh 2 biji selubang. Jarak tanaman yang disyorkan ialah 90 sm antara pokok. Selepas 2 minggu, cabut satu pokok yang kurang subur. Sebanyak 11 gm biji benih diperlukan untuk satu batas yang berukuran 1.2 m lebar dan 30 m panjang.


Penuaian
Buah-buah bendi boleh dituai dengan memotong 2 sm dari pangkal buah. Elakkan dari tercedera kerana lendirnya akan keluar berterusan dan ini boleh menjatuhkan mutu buah. Penuaian mula dilakukan ketika: i. 50 - 55 hari selepas menanam.ii. 5 - 6 hari selepas bunga berkembang dan berlaku pendebugaan. iii.Buah berukuran 10 - 12 sm panjang, iaitu buah-buahan masih lembut, hujungnya rapuh, senang dipatahkan dan belum berpulur.
Pada peringkat ini buah-buah telah mencapai kadar pertumbuhan yang paling tinggi dan hendaklah dituai supaya pokok-pokok bendi boleh terus mengeluarkan bunga-bunga baru dan seterusnya menjamin pengeluaran buah yang berterusan. Hasil dikutip setiap 2 hari sekali dan berterusan sehingga 8 minggu. Jumlah hasil dianggarkan 10,000 - 15,000 kg sehektar 20hb Jun 2008
Sedang berkira-kira untuk tanam 6 perdu bendi.

Wednesday, June 18, 2008

Tanam Kacang Tanah (peanuts or groundnuts)

3.8.2008 Ahad. Pagi tadi nampak 2 dari benih sudah menolak biji kacang keatas. Yang lain belum ada tanda-tanda. Memang betul kacang tanah perlukan tanah yang ringan, berpasir.
30.7.2008 Rabu. Hari ini kami tanam 5 biji kacang tanah. Beberapa hari yang lalu, biji kacang direndam dan ditoskan atas tisu lembab. Kelihatan akar sudah menjulur. Kami tahu, kacang tanah sukakan tanah berpasir dan peroi, tetapi lokasi kacang ini ditanam agak lembab dengan tanah liat. Sebelum ini sudah ada 12 biji kacang tanah ditanam dikawasan batas bekas pokok cili. Itupun belum ada tanda-tanda benih bercambah.

Kompos atau Compost

3.8.2008 Ahad, Dua pokok betik tepi kawasan kompos kelihatan jauh subur dari 2 yang lain. Hari ini ada seguni daun kering untuk ditambah dalam longgok kompos itu.


18.6.2008. Kompos, di dua lokasi. satu depan verandah, kedua di tepi pokok betik. Lapis rumput kering dengan tanah. Sebelum ini, kompos tepi ruang sidai baju telah digunakan.

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The Composting Process

What is compost?

Compost is decomposed organic material. Compost is made with material such as leaves, shredded twigs, and kitchen scraps from plants.

To gardeners, compost is considered "black gold" because of its many benefits in the garden. Compost is a great material for garden soil. Adding compost to clay soils makes them easier to work and plant. In sandy soils, the addition of compost improves the water holding capacity of the soil. By adding organic matter to the soil, compost can help improve plant growth and health.

Composting is also a good way to recycle leaves and other yard waste. Instead of paying a company to haul away leaves, you can compost the leaves and return the nutrients to your garden. Instead of buying peat moss, save money and make your own compost!

The composting process

The composting process involves four main components: organic matter, moisture, oxygen, and bacteria.

Organic matter includes plant materials and some animal manures. Organic materials used for compost should include a mixture of brown organic material (dead leaves, twigs, manure) and green organic material (lawn clippings, fruit rinds, etc.). Brown materials supply carbon, while green materials supply nitrogen. The best ratio is 1 part green to 1 part brown material. Shredding, chopping or mowing these materials into smaller pieces will help speed the composting process by increasing the surface area.

For piles that have mostly brown material (dead leaves), try adding a handful of commercial 10-10-10 fertilizer to supply nitrogen and speed the compost process.

Moisture is important to support the composting process. Compost should be comparable to the wetness of a wrung-out sponge.

If the pile is too dry, materials will decompose very slowly. Add water during dry periods or when adding large amounts of brown organic material.

If the pile is too wet, turn the pile and mix the materials. Another option is to add dry, brown organic materials.

Oxygen is needed to support the breakdown of plant material by bacteria. To supply oxygen, you will need to turn the compost pile so that materials at the edges are brought to the center of the pile. Turning the pile is important for complete composting and for controlling odor.

Wait at least two weeks before turning the pile, to allow the center of the pile to "heat up" and decompose. Once the pile has cooled in the center, decomposition of the materials has taken place. Frequent turning will help speed the composting process.

Bacteria and other microorganisms are the real workers in the compost process. By supplying organic materials, water, and oxygen, the already present bacteria will break down the plant material into useful compost for the garden. As the bacteria decompose the materials, they release heat, which is concentrated in the center of the pile.

You may also add layers of soil or finished compost to supply more bacteria and speed the composting process. Commercial starters are available but should not be necessary for compost piles that have a proper carbon to nitrogen ratio (1 part green organic material to 1 part brown organic material).

In addition to bacteria, larger organisms including insects and earthworms are active composters. These organisms break down large materials in the compost pile.

How long does it take?

The amount of time needed to produce compost depends on several factors, including the size of the compost pile, the types of materials, the surface area of the materials, and the number of times the pile is turned.

For most efficient composting, use a pile that is between 3 feet cubed and 5 feet cubed (27-125 cu. ft.). This allows the center of the pile to heat up sufficiently to break down materials.

Smaller piles can be made but will take longer to produce finished compost. Larger piles can be made by increasing the length of the pile but limiting the height and the depth to 5 feet tall by 5 feet deep; however, large piles are limited by a person’s ability to turn the materials. You may also want to have two piles, one for finished compost ready to use in the garden, and the other for unfinished compost.

If the pile has more brown organic materials, it may take longer to compost. You can speed up the process by adding more green materials or a fertilizer with nitrogen (use one cup per 25 square feet).

The surface area of the materials effects the time needed for composting. By breaking materials down into smaller parts (chipping, shredding, mulching leaves), the surface area of the materials will increase. This helps the bacteria to more quickly break down materials into compost.

Finally, the number of times the pile is turned influences composting speed. By turning more frequently (about every 2-4 weeks), you will produce compost more quickly. Waiting at least two weeks allows the center of the pile to heat up and promotes maximum bacterial activity. The average composter turns the pile every 4-5 weeks.

When turning the compost pile, make sure that materials in the center are brought to the outsides, and that materials from the outside edges are brought to the center.

With frequent turning, compost can be ready in about 3 months, depending on the time of year. In winter, the activity of the bacteria slows, and it is recommended that you stop turning the pile after November to keep heat from escaping the pileís center. In summer, warm temperatures encourage bacterial activity and the composting process is quicker

Using compost in the yard

Incorporate compost into your garden as you prepare the soil in the spring. Cover the area with 3-4 inches of soil and till it in to at least the upper 6 inches of soil. Add compost to soil in vegetable gardens, annual flower beds, and around new perennials as they are planted.

You may also use compost as mulch around flower beds, vegetable gardens, or around trees or shrubs in landscape beds. Apply a 3 inch layer. Be careful not to apply mulch close to the main stem or trunk of the plant.